Staff Login  
6th Grade: Geography and Essential Skills
Big Idea
Information can be conveyed in many different formats: Maps, graphs, charts, timelines, etc.

To completely understand a problem, it must be examined from a variety of perspectives. Realizing that the study of ancient civilizations may rely on the expertise of secondary sources.

Sources in order to be credible should be from recognized experts in the field.

It is important to be able to obtain information from many different sources, both primary and secondary.
Essential Questions
  • What are the purposes and differences between types of maps, globes, aerial photographs, charts, and satellite images?
  • How can you utilize maps to locate physical and human features?
  • How can you effectively utilize a variety of primary and secondary sources to answer historical questions?

Construct charts, graphs, and narratives using historical data.
Interpret maps, charts, and geographic databases using geographic information.
Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study.
Interpret historical data displayed in graphs, tables, and charts.
Locate physical and human features in the United States and in regions of the world on a map (e.g., continents, significant waterways, mountain ranges, cities, countries).
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
Construct timelines of the historical era being studied (e.g., presidents/ world leaders, key events, people.)
Interpret thematic maps, graphs, charts, and databases depicting various aspects of world regions. (Apply to regions studied).
Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source: provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowlege or opinions.
Formulate questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
Describe the factors that cause regions and places to change.
Identify key steps in a text's description of a process related to history/social studies(e.g., how a bill becomes a law, how interest rates are raised and lowered.)
Describe the difference between primary and secondary sources.
Describe the interactions of people in different places and regions.
Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text,k, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies..
Determine the credibility and bias of primary and secondary sources.
Identify the physical processes that influence the formation and location of resources. (e.g., oil, coal, diamonds, copper).
Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, casually.)
Analyze cause and effect relationships between and among individuals and/or historical events.
Interpret the demographic structure of places and regions using a population pyramid.
Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
Describe how archaeological research adds to our understanding of the past.
Describe ways that human dependence on natural resources influences economic development, settlement, trade and migration.
Distinguish among facts and opinion, and reasoned judgement in a text.
Construct maps, charts, and graphs to display geographic information.
Use geographic knowledge and skills (e.g., recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing) when discussing current events.
Analyze the relationships between primary and secondary sources on the same topic.
Identify purposes of, and differences among, maps, globes, aerial photographs, charts, and satellite images.
Review key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives thorugh reflection and paraphrasing
  • Effectively use maps to show the diversity of the world.
  • Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
  • Recognize different forms of evidence used to make meaning in Social Studies (including primary and secondary sources such as art and photographs, artifacts, oral histories, maps, and graphs.)
  • Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
  • Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
  • Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies to inform about or explain the topic.
  • Use a timeline to place events in sequential order to determine the cause and effect relationship between events and people in history.
Content/Core Ideas
  • Physical maps reflect the varied climate zones, landforms, bodies of water, and natural resources.
  • Map analysis allows students to more carefully understand ancient cultures and civiizations.
  • A variety of maps, tables, charts, and graphs provide information which can be utilized for a specific purpose.
  • Primary and secondary sources provide valuable content information to develop background knowledge.
  • Visual aids and translations are often needed to utilize artifacts from ancient civilizations.
  • A variety of historical sources exist to inform people about life in the past, including artifacts, letters, maps, photographs, and journals, and secondary sources explaining the pasts.
  • Studying ancient civilizations may rely heavily on secondary sources for interpretation of past events.
  • A timeline is a visual interpretation of sequential events.
Learning Practices
  • Comparision of Maps from ancient time to the present may allow students the ability to draw conclusions on the nature of a civilization. Focus may begin on where the landforms allowed for easy access or provided protection from invasion or areas that could be easily conquered.
  • Students should use maps as a gateway to understanding cultures by always considering:
  • Relationship of landforms, that is mountains, seas, lakes, rivers, deserts to location of populated settlements.
  • Reasons why people would live where they lived
  • Explanation of how and where people traded.
  • What cultures would have mixed and where would there be cultural diffusion or cultural conflict?
Academic Vocabulary
  • aerial photograph
  • satellite image
  • physical map
  • political map
  • landforms/body of water (ex: peninsula, mesa, bay)
  • data chart
  • graph
  • table
  • timeline
  • research
  • primary source
  • secondary source
  • credibility
  • bias
  • current events
  • latitude
  • longitude
  • Prime Meridian
  • Equator
  • compass rose
  • scale key/legend
  • subcontinent