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Big Idea
Evolution of animals has led to new classification systems and complex body structures.
Essential Questions
What are important trends in animal evolution?
How are animals classified?
Standards


SCHS-S04-C03-01
Identify the relationships among organisms within populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes.
SCHS-S04-C04-06
Analyze, using a biological classification system (i.e., cladistics, phylogeny, morphology, DNA analysis), the degree of relatedness among various species.
Science & Engineering Practices
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.
  • Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments. (HS-LS2-6)
  • Evaluate the evidence behind currently accepted explanations to determine the merits of arguments. (HS-LS2-8)
Content/Core Ideas
  • As animals have evolved from simple to more complex they tend to have high levels of cell specialization and internal body organization, bilateral symmetry, cephalization, and a body cavity.
  • Although there are more than 30 different phyla of animal the vast majority of animals are found in the following 9 phyla: Porifera, Cnidarian, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelid, Molluska, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, and Chordata.  
Learning Practices
Design and use graphic organizers to show relationships between and within content topics (flowcharts, venn diagrams, cladograms, mind maps...).

Active Engagement Partner work:  Students work with partner(s) to solve basic problems, build models, think pair share...
Academic Vocabulary
blastula
protostome
deuterostome
endoderm
mesoderm
ectoderm
radial symmetry
bilateral symmetry
cephalization
coelom
acoelom
pseudocoelom
Porifera
Cnidarian
Platyhelminthes
Nematoda
Annelid
Molluska
Arthropoda
Echinodermata
Chordata
Resources
Assessments
These are SOME ways to assess student knowledge and understanding of the content.
  • Students will design a cladogram that shows the evolution of complex animal structures.
  • Students will interpret a cladogram to determine the complex animal structures found in each of the 9 phyla of animal.