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FOSS Earth History Inv 4 - My Sediments Exactly
Big Idea
Investigate the properties of sand, sandstone, and shale and the processes that create them.
The downward flow of water shapes landscapes through erosion, transport, and deposition of sediment (A Framework for K-12 Education: Core Idea ESS2.C).
Essential Questions
How is sand made?
How can scientists determine the environment in which a sand sample was taken?
How do models help scientists make inferences?
What roles do weathering and erosion have on the reshaping of Earth's surface?
How can sandstone formation be simulated?
What are the similarities and differences in sandstone and shale?

Formulate questions based on observations that lead to the development of a hypothesis.
Analyze environmental risks (e.g., pollution, destruction of habitat) caused by human interaction with biological or geological systems.
Compare solutions to best address an identified need or problem.
Keep a record of observations, notes, sketches, questions, and ideas using tools such as written and/or computer logs.
Propose possible solutions to address the environmental risks in biological or geological systems.
Explain the following processes involved in the formation of the Earth's structure
  • erosion
  • deposition
  • plate tectonics
  • volcanism
Investigate how sand can be made from larger rocks. Identify the sediments in sandstone and shale Model the formation of sandstone and shale in an ancient environment Study the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition
Science & Engineering Practices
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations:  students develop a procedure for making sand
Analyzing and Interpreting Data:  students analyze characteristics of sand samples
Developing and Using Models:  students use a model to understand how landforms are developed
Planning and Carrying Out Investigation:  students follow a procedure for making sandstone
Content/Core Ideas
  • Sediments forms through the processes of physical and chemical weathering.
  • Erosion is the wearing away of soil and rock by weathering, mass movement, and action of streams, glaciers, waves, and wind.
  • Eroded sediments can be transported by water, wind, pr ice and deposited in new locations.
  • Sediments that settle in water form a flat, horizontal layer; each new layer of sediment is distinct.
  • Sediments turn into solid rock through processs of lithification, which involves cementation, compaction, and crystallization.
  • The present is the key to the past; geological processes that we observe today most likely occurred in the same way throughout Earth's history.
  • Determine how the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition contribute to the formation of sediments, sedimentary rock, and landforms such as the Grand Canyon
Crosscutting Concepts
Cause and Effect
Cause and Effect
Systems and system models
Cause and Effect
Cause and Effect
Stability and Change
Learning Practices
CC:7.W.2  students do a quick-write on the the cause of the layering of the Grand Canyon
6-8.WHST.2. Journal-design a step by step procedure for making sand.
CC:7.RI.1 students read Grand Canyon Flood
CC:7.W.1  students edit their quick-write regarding the rock layers of the Grand Canyon
Academic Vocabulary
  • grain
  • grain size
  • sand
  • silt
  • clay
  • model
  • weathering
  • erosion
  • sediment
  • deposition
  • flood plain
  • canyon
  • basin
  • meanders
  • floodplain deposits
  • delta
  • alluvial fans
  • physical weathering
  • chemical weathering
  • ice wedging
  • abrasion
  • sheeting
  • thermal expansion
  • oxidation
  • mass movement
  • matrix
  • basin
  • lithification
  • compaction
  • cementation
  • horizontal
  • principle of original horizontality
  • uniformitarianism
Mid-summative Exam 4
assess quick-write
Sand Questions
stream-table map
Grand Canyon Model Questions
Questions:  Weathering and Erosion video
assess quick-write